• Users Online: 154
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Most popular articles (Since October 29, 2021)

  Archives   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
How do we “decolonize Global Health”?
Luchuo Engelbert Bain, Agnes Nanyonjo, Victoria Blake, John Tembo, Franklyn Nkongho, Matthew Bates
January-March 2022, 1(1):26-29
A raft of recent commentaries has called for the “decolonization of Global Health.” “Global Health” commentators concerned with medical education, practice, research and governance would appear to agree that the status quo is grossly inequitable. They suggest that embedded power asymmetries rooted in the colonial past persist and that they are a major barrier to reducing inequity. A range of actions has been suggested as steps toward addressing these power imbalances such as ensuring funding panels are more representative and distributing the majority of resources and leadership roles, toward the affected geographies and communities. In this manuscript, we share our view on what both “decolonization” and “Global Health” might mean, and outline some key actions to combat racism in health research and practice.
  911 129 -
Is a time to established medical mycobacteriology as an academic degree (master of science)? Strategical plan for next future
Ali Akbar Velayati, Jafar Aghajani, Parissa Farnia
January-March 2022, 1(1):14-20
The genus Mycobacterium contains more than 190 species, including several major human pathogens as well as numerous environmental species. With so much advances in molecular methods, the transmission of huge number of mycobacteria called nontuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM) is still under a question. Till date, the majority of work have been focused on tuberculosis (TB) complex mycobacteria, the knowledge of human-to-human, environmental, animal-to-human transmission, and vice versa susceptibility, and most of their NTM genomic structures have been ignored, especially in limited-resource countries. For example, in Iran, there are currently 423 public laboratories for direct smear microscopy (DSM) and 42 laboratories for mycobacterial cultures, and 9 diagnostic centers for susceptibility and identification of TB complex from NTM species. Only National TB Reference Laboratory in Iran is capable of identifying subspecies of NTMs and preforms second-line drug resistant. Furthermore, there are some governmental centers such as Pasteur and Razi Institutes that are capable to detect TB and NTM species within the country. Due to the importance of these opportunistic microorganisms that caused pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections, the need for specialized personnel in this field seems to be necessary. Due to the weakness of governing bodies to educate personals in the TB laboratories, it is essential to have an academic degree as a “Master of Science (MSc)” in medical universities to educate skilled academic individuals in this particular field. As a consequence, we can expect to use the updated identification methods and perform research in various fields of NTMs. With no doubt, this course will help to recognize the related diseases and improve the overall public health problems because Mycobacterium species are no longer considered to be a narrow group of microorganisms.
  862 106 -
Molecular epidemiology and infectious disease agent typing terminology – A revised glossary of key terms
Beverley Cherie Millar, John E Moore
January-March 2022, 1(1):1-6
Epidemiological tracking of infectious diseases is important to help determine the source and routes of transmission of the causal agent, whether this be a virus, bacterium, fungus, or parasite. This can be complicated due to the diagnostic typing tools employed and the terminologies used can be unfamiliar to the nonspecialist, who needs to be able to understand the terms used. Therefore, we have developed an up-to-date glossary of 95 related epidemiological terms from peer-reviewed publications to help in the understanding of these terms, particularly with a nonspecialist audience.
  860 106 -
Bacille Calmette – Guérin vaccination: Experience from the past and its perspective further
Roland Maes
January-March 2022, 1(1):7-13
Today, tuberculosis (TB) kills one person in 14 s in India and one in 12 s, worldwide (that comes to approximate 4000 people per day). The majority of cases are invisible because they are either confined in sanatoria and/or do not encumber regular hospitalization, in contrast to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemy has put in glaring light the fragility of the elders, the minorities, and the exposure of the healthcare agents that was similar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The mayhem of coronavirus might be repeated itself with the foreseen rise of TB, that would affect the healthcare system resemble much of what occurred during the last 3 years (2019-till date). We must keep in mind that currently TB is neglected and that it might expand again, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, the past and further perspective of Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination is described. In addition, the tuberculin skin-testing which has a complex and long story was reviewed. Furthermore, the effect and side-effect of BCG vaccination compared and discussed.
  811 90 -
Cystic fibrosis: Mutations, modulators and microbiology
Pippa J Blevings, John E Moore, Beverley Cherie Millar
January-March 2022, 1(1):30-34
The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented arrival and introduction of several new innovations in the treatment and management of cystic fibrosis (CF), all for the benefit of people with CF (PwCF). Such innovations have been largely led by the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator medicines, which have also been accompanied by new antibiotics, nutritional formulations, as well as advances in the delivery of medicine through nebulization. Many of these have had an influence on the microbiology of the CF lung and the rebalancing of microbial taxa and cell density within the airways. Simultaneously, certain aspects of the new treatments have led to difficulties in PwCF being able to produce sufficient sputum to enable routine microbiological analyses to be performed. Coupled with this, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the emergence of the virtual CF clinical, where individuals with CF do not have to physically travel to CF clinic as frequently as before, with the disadvantage of not producing sputum specimens for routine microbiological analyses. This review examines the interaction between CF mutations and CFTR modulators, with particular focus on CF microbiology.
  716 64 -
Potential approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant leprosy
Mallika Lavania, Gaurav Datta, Umesh Dutt Gupta
January-March 2022, 1(1):21-25
Leprosy, a chronic human disease with potentially debilitating neurological consequences, results from infection with Mycobacterium leprae, which is still a major health problem in several countries of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. With the mass campaigns, using multidrug therapy, the prevalence of leprosy has come down drastically worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important consideration in the management of leprosy. Unfortunately, quinolone-resistant strains of Mycobacterium leprae have also been reported in several countries, probably due to the extensive use of quinolones for treating several types of infections. To meet the challenge of containing the disease and being able to respond to an increase in circulation of drug-resistant strains, it is essential to assess drug-sensitivity patterns globally, as well as to monitor resistance among both new and retreatment cases. However, these studies highlight the need for increased vigilance to AMR. In this study, we thoroughly reviewed the molecular methods used to detect drug resistance in leprosy. We can infer that our article assessing strategies less complex than multifunction peripheral and genome sequencing are promising choices for the testing of AMR in leprosy patients. Furthermore, our analysis recommends that the extent of safe cases has not essentially expanded in late many years.
  646 59 -
Scorpion envenomations in Algeria
Schehrazad Selmane, Mohamed Lhadj
January-March 2022, 1(1):45-53
CONTEXT: Due to its climatic and ecological characteristics, Algeria shelters a diverse scorpion fauna and scorpion envenomations represent an actual public health issue. AIMS: The purpose of this retrospective study was to bring word on the trend, spatial distribution, and spatial clustering of scorpion envenomations in Algeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Moran's I statistic was used to analyse the global spatial autocorrelation and the first order Queen's contiguity rule was used to specify the spatial neighborhood relationship. RESULTS: A total of 1,274,154 scorpion sting accidents including 2347 deaths have been recorded from 1991 to 2020. In 2019, the incidence was 116.7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and only 3 of Algeria's 48 provinces were free of scorpion sting accidents. 47% of sting cases occurred in the Sahara, 46% in the high plateaus and 7% in the Tell and all southern provinces had an incidence varying between 162 and 827 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence rates exhibited spatial autocorrelation globally; all Moran index values ranged between 0.49 and 0.66 and all z-scores were greater than the critical value at 0.05 level of significance. The most significant hot spots were located in the Sahara and the high plateaus and the most significant cold spots were located in the tell. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to reframe the set objectives and the actions to be carried out taking into account spatial clustering, seasonality, and species spatial distribution. A good management can be achieved by active public participation at all levels of planning, decision-making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
  646 40 -
In silico screening and characterization of novel natural peptides as spike protein inhibitors of novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2)
Raghunath Satpathy, Namrata Dash
January-March 2022, 1(1):54-62
BACKGROUND: The present work is a computational approach to discover the novel peptides that can interact and inhibit the action of spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 193 numbers probable naturally occurring antiviral peptides were retrieved from the antimicrobial database. The three-dimensional structure of all the peptides was predicted by the Chimera tool followed by energy minimization. Similarly, the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 chain A (PDB ID 6VBY) structure was obtained from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and used as the receptor. RESULTS: Protein–protein docking was performed for all the peptides followed by some screening criteria that resulted in three numbers of potential peptides such as CAP11 binds to a receptor-binding domain (RBD), mytilin B to S1/S2 cleavage regions, and mBD-1 as N-terminal-binding domain of spike protein. Further screening and evaluation of solubility and the toxic properties of the peptides it was obtained that the peptide molecules CAP11 and mytilin B are nontoxic. Further, the RBD-binding nature of CAP11 peptide was evaluated comparatively by taking the human ACE2 protein and RBD region of the wild-type SARS-CoV-2, triple mutant, South African mutant (B.1.351), by using molecular docking followed by interface analysis. It was predicted that the CAP11 peptide was able to bind perfectly with the RBD domain of both wild type and triple mutant one but not to the South African mutant.
  594 53 -
The effect of virtual reality technology on reducing pain and stress during arterial catheter placement
Lida Fadaizadeh, Mohammad Sanaat, Seyed Mohammad Jafar Taheri, Marjan Sistani
January-March 2022, 1(1):40-44
BACKGROUND: Different pharmacological ways for pain and stress control exists, but still, there is space for alternative therapeutic methods and researchers are looking for novel ways to achieve this goal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of virtual reality (VR) in reducing pain and stress during minor interventions such as arterial line placement. METHODS: In this study, patients who were candidates for arterial catheter placement before anesthesia induction were selected. Eligible patients were randomly divided into case and control groups. After obtaining consent from both groups and applying local anesthesia, the procedure was performed while displaying a film by VR camera for case group. After the procedure, pain, stress, and satisfaction levels were asked from patients. Pain score was measured by Visual Analog Scale score and during the procedure, vital signs were recorded to detect changes. RESULTS: The results in case and control patients showed that 47.5% of patients in case group and 22.5% of patients in control group had pain (P value = 0.019). Considering stress, respectively, 32.5% and 45% of the patients in the control and case groups reported positive (P = 0.251). Intergroup comparison of vital signs showed no significant difference between the case and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, patients in case group experienced more pain and stress in comparison to the control group which shows that using the new technology was not quite acceptable. Therefore, we recommend the patients experience and be familiarized with the new device in normal condition before using it for procedures.
  592 50 -
The diagnostic conundrum of lupus vulgaris versus cutaneous sarcoidosis
K Geetha, Puja, Niraj Kumari, Shruti Gupta
January-March 2022, 1(1):63-66
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis (TB). Lupus vulgaris is one of the most common forms of cutaneous TB, which affects 1%–2% of TB patients. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease with an unknown origin, and skin involvement is the second most common symptom. Both TB and sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases. Depending on investigations, it is often hard to distinguish sarcoidosis from TB, especially when serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels are high in certain cases of TB with negative acid-fast staining in the biopsy specimen. This is a report of two patients where there was trouble distinguishing between sarcoidosis and TB based on laboratory reports but was eventually diagnosed with cutaneous TB based on the Mantoux, QuantiFERON-TB Gold test, and histopathological pattern. Anti-TB therapy was administered to those patients, and the skin lesions resolved completely.
  594 43 -
Strategies, Technologies, and Challenges in the Management of COVID-19 Pandemic by Telehealth
Abdolreza Babamahmoodi, Zahra Arefnasab, Matin Marjani, Seyed Mohammad Poorhosseini, Mitra Rezaei, Majid Marjani
January-March 2022, 1(1):35-39
Presenting professional health services after the COVID-19 pandemic age may be recognized with numerous critical features that did not exist in preceding pandemics. The widespread world web and cyberspace, social media, and technologies for providing remote intelligent health services are the most prominent differences between the recent pandemic and previous ones. Most health-care providers in the pandemic era focus more on the technologies needed to set up telehealth but do not pay enough attention to the strategies and challenges ahead. They are more focused on the lucrative health market in the days of the pandemic but do not have appropriate and dynamic strategies for it. This article addresses the strategies, technologies, and challenges facing telehealth and emphasizes the importance and priority of the necessary strategies, prioritizing technology.
  524 39 -
Design a new home-based multifunctional physiotherapy device for musculoskeletal pain relief
Mahsa Eskandari, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Mohammad Hossein Ghafouri Moghaddam, Alireza Delisnav, Shadi Shafaghi, Fariba Ghorbani, Nasrin Taherkhani, Masoud Shafaghi
April-June 2022, 1(2):121-126
BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has affected public health and the patients suffering from musculoskeletal pain have little chance to receive medical care to reduce the burden of musculoskeletal pain with no definitive treatment, the need for home remedies is felt more than ever for such patients. This research is presented a new kind of home physiotherapy device by three different therapeutic functions including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), vibration, and heat to provide patients with remote services. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The conceptual map of the system, including the mechanical, electrical, and software parts, as well as the location and connection of electrical components used in the system, is presented. Then, after programming the device and designing a mobile application layout tree for creating an account, the device is turned on, and therapeutic values are entered into the device. Finally, the results of the initial use are displayed on a mobile phone. RESULTS: In this section, we present several screenshots of the mobile application's screen and a picture of the primary prototype of the device. The first item includes the main menu, which allows the user to enter the application. On first use, the patients will have to register themselves by selecting the “register” option. Another page provides details about the therapeutic methods of TENS, heat, and vibration. CONCLUSION: This system is a cost-and-time-effective strategy and helps physiotherapists to cover more patients at the same time and follow patients' treatment courses through televising.
  318 13 -
Coronavirus disease 2019 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivation and coinfections: A review of the literature
Zahra Daneshmandi, Guitti Pourdowlat, Mahsa Rekabi, Parisa Honarpisheh, Mahsa Mirzendedel, Elham Sadati, Hossein Ali Ghaffaripour, Maryam Hasanzad, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Ali Akbar Velayati
April-June 2022, 1(2):76-81
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), greatly affects the health systems and socioeconomic parameters. Post pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 might activate dormant bacterial infections like Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the long term. The mechanism of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation is still not clear, but it is thought that in healthy individuals, a strong immune response can form granulomatous lesion and prevents the development of active TB, while, in patients with dysregulated immune systems, TB reactivation occurs. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge about the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and TB as an unwavering health hazard.
  86 9 -
The Association Between Vitamin D Deficiency and Childhood Asthma
Nabaa Mohammed Jawad Al-Tuama, Zuhair Mahdi Almusawi, Haidar Abdul Amir Najim Abood, Ali Abutiheen, Karrar Mohammed Jawad Al-tuama
April-June 2022, 1(2):115-120
BACKGROUND: Asthma, a major public health issue, is one of the most common diseases affecting millions of population globally. It is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by increased airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness. Vitamin D deficiency has become a global public health concern. Vitamin D is of particular interest in asthma due to its immunomodulatory effects. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency is found to be a risk factor in the development of serious chronic diseases where inflammatory mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis. Several researches have reported positive associations between Vitamin D and asthma. On the other hand, others have reported contrasting effects of Vitamin D on asthma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine whether asthmatic patients attending Kerbala teaching hospital for pediatrics have Vitamin D deficiency or not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a case–control study, patients with asthma and healthy volunteers between the ages 1 and 14 years were enrolled into the study as patient and control groups, respectively. Fifty patients with asthma and 66 healthy children were included. For both groups, demographic information and body mass index were recorded. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in serum collected from all 116 children. For asthmatic patients, clinical findings were recorded and total Immunoglobulin E (IgE) were determined for all patients. RESULTS: Fifty patients with asthma and 66 healthy children were included. Compared to the control group, decreased serum Vitamin D levels were significantly detected in patient group. Forty six (92%) of asthmatic patients have were Vitamin D insufficient, as defined by a level of 30 ng/mL or less 25-hydroxyvitamin D. In compare to the control group, forty six (69.7%) have Vitamin D insufficiency (odds ratio = 5, P < 0.001). No significant correlation was found between Vitamin D levels and age, gender, obesity, sun exposure, and dietary intake in asthmatic patients. CONCLUSION: The frequency of Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was higher in children with asthma, compared to the controls.
  80 7 -
Relationship between Helicobacter Pylori and colon cancer
Batool Ali Khorsheed, Raghdah Maythem Hameed, Zahraa Hussein Khorsheed
April-June 2022, 1(2):138-142
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria found in the gastric epithelia of around half of the world's population. Chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and stomach cancer are all known to be caused by this illness. Furthermore, there is evidence that bacteria are linked to a number of extragastric disorders. Since it was initially hypothesized that the link between extragastric illnesses and colon cancer. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to obtain the correlation between colon cancer and H. pylori infection. METHODS: In this study, we tested blood samples were collected from the patients with colon cancer to assess the presence of anti-H. pylori infection antibodies in 10 patients with colorectal cancer and 10 with no specific pathologies as a control group. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) and a highly significant difference (P > 0.001) in H. pylori infection and colon cancer between patients and control, respectively. A significant correlation between H. pylori infection and colon cancer (P > 0.05) was noted. It was found to be a positive linear correlation with H. pylori infection (r = 0.436) and significant (P = 0.027). The study showed a significant correlation between age and H. pylori and colon cancer (P = 0.013 and P = 0.034, respectively). CONCLUSION: H. pylori infection is one of the risk factors that develop colon cancer. The old age correlates with increased colon cancer and H. pylori infection.
  76 6 -
In silico Study of shape complementarity, binding affinity, and protein–ligand interactions of systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment-aptamer to programmed death ligand-1 using patchdock
Kirstie Wong Chee Ching, Muhammad Najmi Mohd Nazri, Abdul Rahim Abdul Rachman, Khairul Mohd Fadzli Mustafa, Noor Fatmawati Mokhtar
April-June 2022, 1(2):127-133
BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid aptamers hold great promise in diagnostic and therapeutic applications for a wide range of diseases due to their analog feature to antibodies. Despite the utility of systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method for aptamer determination, complementarity in silico aptamer design is highly sought after to facilitate virtual screening and increased understanding of important aptamer–protein interactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We previously obtained aptamers against programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) through SELEX: P12, P32, and P33. In the present work, structure prediction and binding mode of these aptamers to PD-L1 were evaluated using mFold and DNA sequence to structure (IIT Delhi) for two-dimensional and three-dimensional structure prediction, respectively, and PatchDock for docking. PD-L1 model protein 5N2F was used as the target protein. Docking was performed and analyzed based on three aspects: shape complementarity score, binding affinity, and interactions with aptamer. RESULTS: All three aptamers combine steadily with 5N2F protein through strong hydrogen (polar bonds), hydrophobic interactions (nonpolar bonds), and π-cation interactions, which can be accessed through a fully automated protein–ligand interaction profiler. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular docking experiments indicated the feasibility of using in silico technique to select aptamers that can function as antibodies analog.
  70 6 -
Current Understanding of Alzheimer's Disease on Biomarkers, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Modalities, and Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment Approach
Chintan Revashnakar Varnagar, Hitesh Shah
April-June 2022, 1(2):105-114
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are hampered and steep decline in gross cognitive function is observed, in the early stage of life. AD is characterized by progressive loss and damage to the structure and/or function of neuronal cell, resulting in death of neurons, however, etiology and pathophysiology of the disease are not known in its entirety. The purpose of this article is to understand, analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information in order to provide conclusive, decisive, and actionable information on (1) microscopic features and known etiology, pathophysiology, genes involved, and protein misfolding observed in AD; (2) selection and use of prominent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities and allied biomarkers to detect and diagnose AD by application of AI techniques; (3) role of preventive intervention (diet and lifestyle) in reducing risk of developing AD, to act on modifiable and correctable risk factors of AD, to manage AD and treatment strategies of AD through the use of pharmacology and therapeutic drugs. Deep learning-based techniques have proven capabilities to learn features automatically to discriminate class effectively. We proposed a method that incorporates features (biomarkers) derived from the structural MRI modality, clinical assessment tools, and personal and demographic quantifiable parameters into a convolution neural network. and further boosted the ensemble-based learning algorithm to improve prediction accuracy. An ensemble-based learning algorithm is then used to integrate weights to improve prediction accuracy.
  70 6 -
A review on anticancer potential of Berberis aristata and berberine with focus on quantitative methods
Manasi Rokade, Vijaya Vichare, Tejaswini Neve, Bhagyashri Parande, Shashikant Dhole
April-June 2022, 1(2):67-75
Berberis aristata (BA) is a traditional herbal ayurvedic medicine widely used from ancient time and has various therapeutic effect. In this review, we had tried to emphasize on its pharmacognistic as well phytochemical parameters. We had aiming to focus on estimation of berberin in extract using different analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography, high-performance thin-layer chromatography from various parts of BA plant. It contains different isoquinoline alkaloids, namely berberine, palmitine, berbamine which are contributing in the pharmacological action of BA. As it has various pharmacological actions such as anti-bacterial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and anti-hemorrhagic. Along with that, it is also a potential anticancer agent as its methanolic extract showed potent activity against different cell lines such as breast cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer cell lines. In this review, we had emphasized on phamacognosy, phytochemistry, and analysis for berberine content of BA along with its anticancer potential. A brief spotlight had also given on anticancer prospective of berberine.
  58 8 -
Isoniazid nano-drug delivery systems targeting macrophages for the treatment of tuberculosis
Sree Lakshmi Vemula, Mahima Tejasvni Gupta
April-June 2022, 1(2):96-104
In the current clinical setting, the management of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a challenge. Isoniazid (INH) remains a drug of choice for treating tuberculosis (TB) via the conventional oral route. However, INH has low plasma levels due to its poor permeability into the bacterial cell. Furthermore, it has a short half-life of 1–4 h, indicating a brief residence in the plasma. Therefore, multiple administration frequencies at high doses are required, leading to multi-drug resistance and other side effects like nephrotoxicity. Lungs being the main target organ for TB, a pulmonary route of administration could be an alternative route to overcome such shortcomings. Due to multiple clearance mechanisms and biological barriers that restrict the entry of particles into the respiratory system, the pulmonary route of drug administration may not always be efficient. Thus, the era of nanotechnology has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to developing various drugs for overcoming such challenges. This review article highlights the anatomy and physiology of the lungs, the barriers to the pulmonary drug delivery system, and how these barriers decide the drug disposition at the target site. In addition, the various properties of the drug delivery systems such as size, shape, and charge have been discussed in the subsections, followed by various formulation-based drug delivery systems for INH, including preclinical investigation studies.
  54 6 -
Benchmarking the distribution coefficient of anticancer lead compounds using the predicted log D values of clinically approved chemotherapeutic drugs
Paolo Raphael Eclarin, Patricia Andrea Yan, Carlo Lorenzo Paliza, Blanche Ibasan, Patricia Rosemarie Basiloy, Nick Adrian Gante, Angelie Nicole Reyes, John Sylvester Nas
April-June 2022, 1(2):143-152
BACKGROUND: The distribution coefficient (Log D) can predict the solubility of a compound at a particular pH. In identifying lead compounds, Log D is helpful to predict the behavior, permeability, and clearance of a compound in the different organs. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of Log D to discriminate cancer tissues from non-cancer tissues using the predicted Log D of various clinically approved anticancer drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected the information on the different anticancer drugs for breast, liver, kidney, lung small, lung non-small, prostate, and bone cancer from the National Cancer Institute. We predicted their Log D values at different pH of their respective tissues. RESULTS: Results show that only the Log D values of breast and lung non-small cancer drugs in the cancer tissues were significantly different (p<0.05) from the Log D of the non-cancer tissue counterpart. Moreover, the Log D value of the normal and bone cancer tissues is significantly different (p<0.05) from the different normal and cancer tissues evaluated. Furthermore, the Log D values of small lung cancer tissues are significantly different (p<0.05) from normal and kidney cancer tissues, normal and liver cancer tissues, and normal non-small and lung cancer tissues. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that drugs that may be permeable in breast and lung non-small cancer tissues may not be permeable in their normal tissue counterpart. Additionally, bone and lung small cancer drugs may have low permeability with other tissues, indicating that the unintended effects may be low. However, since there is a low permeability in other organs, it may not be a good candidate for drug repurposing. These findings are yet inconclusive; hence, further investigation is needed to verify the results of this investigation.
  48 6 -
The Role of the Immune System in the Pathophysiology of Essential Hypertension
Mahsa Rekabi, Zahra Daneshmandi, Elham Sadati, Mahsa Mirzendehdel, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Ali Valinejadi, Ali Akbar Velayati, Parisa Honarpisheh
April-June 2022, 1(2):88-95
Hypertension (HTN) is a critical worldwide health issue and an imperative risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. There are many crevices in our knowledge about the pathophysiology of HTN. The mechanisms intervening in HTN are complex. In recent years, a large scale of evidence supports the role of various components of the innate and adaptive immune systems (such as immune cells subsets, cytokines, complement system, and toll-like receptors) as contributors to HTN and developed end-organ damage. The endpoint of all these pathways is to develop an inflammatory condition that leads to HTN and damage to the end organ. Despite the availability of different antihypertensive drugs, there are still many patients with persistent or uncontrolled HTN. Therefore, understanding these immune pathways and their effects on patients with resistant hypertension. In addition, finding the detailed immunopathogenesis may help us find more targeted therapeutic approaches and improve cardiovascular and renal function in this high-risk untreated population. This review article summarizes different conducted studies on immunity and HTN that indicate the basic role of the immune system in causing HTN.
  48 5 -
Pharmacological interrelationship analysis between Lentinula Edodes and COVID-19: A pathway analysis
Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip, Viroj Wiwanitkit
April-June 2022, 1(2):134-137
BACKGROUND: Learning about the numerous ways traditional plants can be used to address medical concerns is fascinating. Many researches are being conducted to investigate the effects of traditional herbal mushrooms in the treatment of a variety of medical ailments, including respiratory disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we used network pharmacology to identify a biological relationship between the pharmacological influence of shiitake or Lentinula edodes, a traditional Asian medicinal fungus, and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pathophysiology. RESULTS: Using interrelationship analysis, the scientists revealed the common pathway through inducing mitochondrial membrane potential loss. CONCLUSION: The use of L. edodes to treat COVID-19 could be useful. It is suggested that more research be done on the efficacy of shiitake mushrooms in the treatment of COVID-19. Based on the findings of this study, a method to combat COVID-19 using a locally available herbal regimen should be a current high priority research field. The primary in silico study's likely alternate option should be advanced to in vitro and in vivo research as a result.
  40 4 -
Interdisciplinary collaboration between engineering and nursing on baby crying analyzing and classification: A biotechnology study
Serap Ozdemir, Efe Çetin Yilmaz
April-June 2022, 1(2):82-87
This study aims to reveal a multidisciplinary study on analysis and signal processing on infant crying in the field of engineering and nursing. It is a known fact that babies report all their needs with crying behavior. It is often very difficult for those responsible for the baby to determine the needs of the baby with this crying behavior. It is of great importance for the comfort of the baby that the parents can accurately predict the crying behavior and needs of the babies. For this reason, the analysis of the sound signals produced by babies during crying behavior is an interesting subject in the field of engineering. In the literature, proposed approaches capture the baby's cry signal and extract a unique set of features from this signal using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients, Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients, and pitch. This feature set is used to distinguish between partner signals to recognize the causes of crying. Furthermore, this classification is used to represent different classes of causes of crying, such as hunger, pain, sleep, and discomfort. As a result, in this study, the clinical analysis of infant crying behaviors was examined and optimum solutions were evaluated in terms of engineering. Thus, new approaches have been tried to be brought by analyzing artificial intelligence-based sound analysis systematics.
  34 8 -