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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2023
Volume 2 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 71-134

Online since Tuesday, May 30, 2023

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Review of the book “hospitalization, diagnosis, treatment, and surgery: The life cycle of medical sciences in Iran” as a strategic and comprehensive book in the field of medical history p. 71
Mohammad Varahram
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Asymptomatic Individuals with Coronavirus Disease-19 as Infectious Cases and Encouragement Immunity Hypothesis p. 74
Ali Saad Kadhim, Younus Jasim Abdullah, Noor Flayyih Hasan
Asymptomatic individuals with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) play a significant role in viral transmission. These individuals are in the incubation period as healthy. Until now, the immune responses of asymptomatic individuals have not been fully understood, and research evidence is very lacking but few studies have indicated increases in the number of lymphocytes in the blood, giving them strong cellular immunity. The blood of survivor's silent carriers (asymptomatic individuals) may be used as prophylaxis or/and treatment for patients. This review is focused on COVID-19 transmission, appropriate screening and testing, perspectives on immune responses in silent patients and their role in the transmission of infection, the association of human leukocyte antigen haplotypes and COVID-19 infection, and the perspectives on convalescence plasma and encouragement immunity hypothesis as treatment and/or prophylaxis for COVID-19 management. The current review can serve as an incentive for researchers in the field of immunology, ecology, and virology. The review also rationally reports and critically analyzes the information available by focusing on and identifying future steps and strategies aimed at finding suitable solutions to COVID-19 management challenges by encouraging immunity.
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Preventive food complements and preventive tuberculosis p. 80
Roland Maes
Hippocrates recommended to treat patients with food. One cannot emphasize the enough importance of food and its impact on human behavior. I will expose in detail the rationale for use, the activity, and the production for three of them, i.e., essential fatty acids (flax oil), uleine (Pao aspido), yeast nucleic acid extracts (oligoribonucleotides), and because COVID-19 is here, I will present in a succinct way honey for its immunological properties and bitter orange for its anti-inflammatory activity. Adequate nutrition curbs the development of some afflictions. For example, tuberculosis symptoms have significantly regressed with the standard of living acquired in the Western world after the second world war, whereas it continues to strive in less favored parts of the world. A depreciation of food standards (contaminated foods, poor nutrients, junk-food, and abandon of an array of traditional foods) prevents the weakened immune system of stressed hosts to accomplish its duty to keep the natural homeostasis under control.
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Laboratory markers in the prediction of premature birth p. 89
Evgenia Igorevna Popova, Andrey Vladimirovich Kozlov, Arina Ilinichna Sizova, Artem Viktorovich Lyamin, Oksana Anatolyevna Gusyakova, Alena Anatolyevna Ereshchenko
The problem of premature birth (PB) remains topical for the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist. The study of marker proteins indicating an increased risk of PB is one of the relevant areas of interest in modern obstetrics. The review presents data on laboratory markers of the onset of PB. Information on the importance of laboratory tests in predicting this condition is presented. A literature review on databases Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Russian Science Citation Index, with a description of the experience of Russian and foreign authors on the use of biochemical indicators in determining risks of PB, is led. The significance of indicators such as fetal fibronectin, placental α-microglobulin-1, phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 and other marker proteins, as well as cytokines and hormones in the diagnosis of this condition is described. The experience of using noninvasive rapid tests for the qualitative determination of analytes from cervicovaginal artery emissions is reported. The efficacy of the joint use of medical ultrasound data combined with the determination of the level of one of the laboratory predictors, which choice is reliant on the gestational period and the presence of complications, is estimated. The use of laboratory predictors to determine the risk of PB can significantly reduce the number of unjustifiable hospitalizations as well as the institution of tocolytic and hormonal therapy. Almost all of the predictors which are described have a high negative predictive value, which may help reduce unreasonable hospitalizing.
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Oxidative stress and inflammatory response interplay p. 94
Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Musa Abidemi Muhibi, Tolulope Busayo Olaniyan
Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses are two highly related processes that, when interacted with, can have profound health consequences. Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the body's antioxidant defense mechanisms, and the inflammatory response is the body's response to injury, infection, or tissue damage. This work was designed to review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammatory response to provide useful information. Relevant and accurate literature were sourced from WHO. CDC, NCDC, PubMed, Scopus, PLoS One, and NATURE journals. Interference between these two processes can lead to accelerated aging, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and neurological diseases. Maintaining a balance between oxidative stress and the inflammatory response is critical to promoting overall health and preventing the progression of chronic disease. Several knowledge and research gaps were found and reported in this study. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses are closely related, and their dysregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of many medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, and cancer. Management of oxidative stress and inflammation through lifestyle modification and medical interventions, including appropriate attention to the knowledge and research gaps identified in this work, could provide significant therapeutic benefits in these conditions.
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Brief overview: Current scenario of rotavirus infection, vaccine coverage, and future prospects p. 101
Ankur Kumar, Amresh Kumar Singh, Anita Pandey
This article reviews the burden of rotavirus (RV) disease and the role, types, and coverage of RV vaccines (RVVs) in India as well as globally. Establishing the epidemiology and burden of RV disease became an early priority. In the world, diarrheal infections are the second greatest cause of death in children, accounting for one in nine fatalities. Before the widespread use of RV vaccinations, an estimated 453,000 children under the age of 5 died worldwide from RV gastroenteritis (RVGE) in 2008. That's why the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that RV vaccination should be included in national immunization programs to prevent RVGE. Several vaccines have been invented, and they are an efficient way to shield kids from RVGE. Four RVVs are currently approved by the WHO and accessible worldwide: the monovalent live attenuated human RVV (Rotarix); the pentavalent human-bovine reassortant RVV (RotaTeq); the naturally occurring monovalent neonatal bovine-human reassortant neonatal G9P[11], also known as 116E (Rotavac) and the Pentavalent, human-bovine RVV Rotasiil; all of them WHO prequalified, well tolerated with variable efficacy and protective value distributed globally. To control the RV disease among children, it is crucial to support the development of the next generation of vaccines. If the new vaccine is found to be secure, more efficient, simple to administer, and inexpensive for all, the disease may be controlled more efficiently in the near future.
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Acute kidney injury in human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis patients on treatment and its association with host predicting factors, in south-west region of cameroon: A cohort study p. 106
Jude Eteneneng Enoh, Frederick Nchang Cho, Ngyah Ambo Agwa, Simon Eyongabane Ako, Faustin Pascal Manfo, Anna Njunda Longdoh, Eric Achidi Akum
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence and severity of kidney injury and explore the host factors to predict acute kidney injury (AKI) among tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and TB/HIV patients on the treatment in Fako Division of Cameroon. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out from September 2018 to November 2019. Serum creatinine and urea were measured spectrophotometrically. The Chi-square test with cox regression was used to assess the association between the risk factors and AKI. RESULTS: The overall incidence of AKI and renal injury was 21.4%–41.4%, respectively. Stage 1 AKI as well as mild renal injury was more prevailing among the HIV-infected patients; 10.5% versus 31.4%. The highest incidences; 30.0% AKI, and 53.0% renal injury were recorded amongst those with TB/HIV coinfections and HIV mono-infections, respectively. Persons who were ≥40 years and those with low baseline hemoglobin levels were two times and two and half times more likely to develop AKI compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence of AKI in patients on treatment was high. Thus, it is important to evaluate the renal function of patients before treatment within the first 2 weeks of treatment.
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Nitrofurantoin sensitivity among Escherichia coli and gram-positive cocci isolated from urinary tract infection p. 115
Falah Hasan Obayes Al-Khikani, Ali Abedulameer Alhusayni, Sabreen Hamdan Jasim
BACKGROUND: Urine samples constitute a major proportion of the samples tested in routine diagnostic laboratories. Nitrofurination used to treat urinary tract infection (UTI) for both Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Resistance to UTI is growing with time, so continuous evaluation of antibiotic is urgent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mid-stream urine samples were collected from patients suspected with UTI. All these samples were inoculated on culture media aerobically at 37°C for overnight. A total of 100 bacteria of both Escherichia coli and Gram-positive cocci were diagnosed by general diagnostic bacteriological methods. Disc diffusion method used for antibiotic sensitivity test; two discs were tested, nitrofurination 300 μg and ceftazidime 30 μg. All the statistical analyses were done using SPSS 26 software and the Excel app. RESULTS: From the total of 100-positive specimens, the female was high prevalence with 72 specimens (72%), whereas males were just 28 specimens (28%) significantly (P < 0.0001). Nitrofurination was very sensitive in E. coli at 90.6% compared to G+ cocci at 33.3% (P < 0.0001). Ceftazidime showed no differences between E. coli 28.1% and G+ cocci 27.8% (P = 0.97). CONCLUSION: Nitrofurination is effective in both E. coli and G+ ve cocci, but it is more effective against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) 90.6% than G+ ve cocci 33.3% significantly (P < 0.0001). There is no significant correlation between ceftazidime and nitrofurantoin (r = −0.07, P = 0.44).
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The age and residence impact on serum total and allergen specific IgE in allergic p. 119
Huda Hadi Al-Hasnawi, Raghdah Maytham Hameed, Haidar Abdul Amir Najim Abood
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin (Ig) E (IgE) has a role in mediating allergic reactions and their powerful effector functions, but numerous factors influence its value. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to find any difference in total and specific IgE at the different age groups and residences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven asthmatic children, including 57 males and 30 females with asthma aged between 1 and 16 years old, 32.2% living in rural and 67.8% living in urban, were collected at Karbala Teaching Hospital for Children. All asthmatic children in this study were subjected to measuring total IgE levels using AccuBind IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, human Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG using Cpn IgG ELISA Kit, and human C. pneumoniae IgE using Cpn IgE ELISA Kit. RESULTS: There was a significant positive linear correlation between age and total IgE level and a significant negative correlation between age and C. pneumonia IgE in asthmatic children (P = 0.255 P = 0.017, P = 0.233, P = 0.03, respectively). Further, there was a significant positive linear correlation between total IgE and C. pneumonia IgE under age controlling (P = 0.225, P = 0.019). In urban residents, the asthmatic children more than 11 years old had a low C. pneumonia IgE level (5.845 ± 1.821 ng/L) compared with asthmatic children who lived in rural areas area (8.206 ± 2.793 ng/L). Depending on age groups, there was a significant difference (P = 0.047) in C. pneumonia IgE level in asthmatic children who lived in urban areas. CONCLUSION: C. pneumoniae-specific IgE decreased in early adulthood urban asthmatic children. The possible explanation is that exposure to the polyallergen may redirect the immune response from one allergen to another.
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In silico characterization of toxicophores found in lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and its molecular interaction with kidney and liver enzymes p. 125
John Sylvester B. Nas, Corrinnette L Panaga, Mikaela G Florendo, Daves T Gacutan, Alyanna Celine V. Dator, Mary Ann G. Cesario, Rina Andrea R. Delos Santos, James Patrick P. Mendez, Mariel C Jose, Eliana Rachelle C. Tamaña
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) is known for its various therapeutic claims. However, the abuse and misuse of herbal medicine is not uncommon. This study investigates the potential toxicophores present in lemongrass plant extract and their binding interaction with kidney and liver enzymes in silico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phytochemicals were identified from 74 articles from various databases. The toxic substructures, oral bioavailability, and clearance of these phytochemicals were characterized virtually. The binding affinity of these phytochemicals to different liver and kidney enzymes, namely gamma-glutamyl transferase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione synthase, renin, human alkaline phosphatase, and 1-alpha-hydroxylase, was predicted and visualized. RESULTS: There were twenty distinct phytochemicals present in lemongrass leaf extract identified from various research articles. Of these twenty phytochemicals, only five were determined to be both hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic despite the majority being found to have high oral bioavailability and low liver and renal clearance. Moreover, isoorientin, which has high liver and renal clearance, was the only phytochemical with a high binding affinity to the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase and kidney enzyme renin. Meanwhile, the rest of the phytochemicals did not demonstrate high binding affinity to the other liver and kidney enzymes, despite having low clearance. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings suggest that 13 of the phytochemicals identified may not affect the selected enzymes but may influence other liver and kidney enzymes due to their low liver and renal clearance.
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