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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2022
Volume 1 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-66

Online since Wednesday, March 23, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

Molecular epidemiology and infectious disease agent typing terminology – A revised glossary of key terms p. 1
Beverley Cherie Millar, John E Moore
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_2_21  
Epidemiological tracking of infectious diseases is important to help determine the source and routes of transmission of the causal agent, whether this be a virus, bacterium, fungus, or parasite. This can be complicated due to the diagnostic typing tools employed and the terminologies used can be unfamiliar to the nonspecialist, who needs to be able to understand the terms used. Therefore, we have developed an up-to-date glossary of 95 related epidemiological terms from peer-reviewed publications to help in the understanding of these terms, particularly with a nonspecialist audience.
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REVIEW STRATEGIES Top

Bacille Calmette – Guérin vaccination: Experience from the past and its perspective further p. 7
Roland Maes
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_1_21  
Today, tuberculosis (TB) kills one person in 14 s in India and one in 12 s, worldwide (that comes to approximate 4000 people per day). The majority of cases are invisible because they are either confined in sanatoria and/or do not encumber regular hospitalization, in contrast to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemy has put in glaring light the fragility of the elders, the minorities, and the exposure of the healthcare agents that was similar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The mayhem of coronavirus might be repeated itself with the foreseen rise of TB, that would affect the healthcare system resemble much of what occurred during the last 3 years (2019-till date). We must keep in mind that currently TB is neglected and that it might expand again, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, the past and further perspective of Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination is described. In addition, the tuberculin skin-testing which has a complex and long story was reviewed. Furthermore, the effect and side-effect of BCG vaccination compared and discussed.
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Is a time to established medical mycobacteriology as an academic degree (master of science)? Strategical plan for next future p. 14
Ali Akbar Velayati, Jafar Aghajani, Parissa Farnia
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_2_22  
The genus Mycobacterium contains more than 190 species, including several major human pathogens as well as numerous environmental species. With so much advances in molecular methods, the transmission of huge number of mycobacteria called nontuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM) is still under a question. Till date, the majority of work have been focused on tuberculosis (TB) complex mycobacteria, the knowledge of human-to-human, environmental, animal-to-human transmission, and vice versa susceptibility, and most of their NTM genomic structures have been ignored, especially in limited-resource countries. For example, in Iran, there are currently 423 public laboratories for direct smear microscopy (DSM) and 42 laboratories for mycobacterial cultures, and 9 diagnostic centers for susceptibility and identification of TB complex from NTM species. Only National TB Reference Laboratory in Iran is capable of identifying subspecies of NTMs and preforms second-line drug resistant. Furthermore, there are some governmental centers such as Pasteur and Razi Institutes that are capable to detect TB and NTM species within the country. Due to the importance of these opportunistic microorganisms that caused pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections, the need for specialized personnel in this field seems to be necessary. Due to the weakness of governing bodies to educate personals in the TB laboratories, it is essential to have an academic degree as a “Master of Science (MSc)” in medical universities to educate skilled academic individuals in this particular field. As a consequence, we can expect to use the updated identification methods and perform research in various fields of NTMs. With no doubt, this course will help to recognize the related diseases and improve the overall public health problems because Mycobacterium species are no longer considered to be a narrow group of microorganisms.
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Potential approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant leprosy p. 21
Mallika Lavania, Gaurav Datta, Umesh Dutt Gupta
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_3_22  
Leprosy, a chronic human disease with potentially debilitating neurological consequences, results from infection with Mycobacterium leprae, which is still a major health problem in several countries of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. With the mass campaigns, using multidrug therapy, the prevalence of leprosy has come down drastically worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important consideration in the management of leprosy. Unfortunately, quinolone-resistant strains of Mycobacterium leprae have also been reported in several countries, probably due to the extensive use of quinolones for treating several types of infections. To meet the challenge of containing the disease and being able to respond to an increase in circulation of drug-resistant strains, it is essential to assess drug-sensitivity patterns globally, as well as to monitor resistance among both new and retreatment cases. However, these studies highlight the need for increased vigilance to AMR. In this study, we thoroughly reviewed the molecular methods used to detect drug resistance in leprosy. We can infer that our article assessing strategies less complex than multifunction peripheral and genome sequencing are promising choices for the testing of AMR in leprosy patients. Furthermore, our analysis recommends that the extent of safe cases has not essentially expanded in late many years.
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How do we “decolonize Global Health”? p. 26
Luchuo Engelbert Bain, Agnes Nanyonjo, Victoria Blake, John Tembo, Franklyn Nkongho, Matthew Bates
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_8_22  
A raft of recent commentaries has called for the “decolonization of Global Health.” “Global Health” commentators concerned with medical education, practice, research and governance would appear to agree that the status quo is grossly inequitable. They suggest that embedded power asymmetries rooted in the colonial past persist and that they are a major barrier to reducing inequity. A range of actions has been suggested as steps toward addressing these power imbalances such as ensuring funding panels are more representative and distributing the majority of resources and leadership roles, toward the affected geographies and communities. In this manuscript, we share our view on what both “decolonization” and “Global Health” might mean, and outline some key actions to combat racism in health research and practice.
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Cystic fibrosis: Mutations, modulators and microbiology p. 30
Pippa J Blevings, John E Moore, Beverley Cherie Millar
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_10_22  
The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented arrival and introduction of several new innovations in the treatment and management of cystic fibrosis (CF), all for the benefit of people with CF (PwCF). Such innovations have been largely led by the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator medicines, which have also been accompanied by new antibiotics, nutritional formulations, as well as advances in the delivery of medicine through nebulization. Many of these have had an influence on the microbiology of the CF lung and the rebalancing of microbial taxa and cell density within the airways. Simultaneously, certain aspects of the new treatments have led to difficulties in PwCF being able to produce sufficient sputum to enable routine microbiological analyses to be performed. Coupled with this, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the emergence of the virtual CF clinical, where individuals with CF do not have to physically travel to CF clinic as frequently as before, with the disadvantage of not producing sputum specimens for routine microbiological analyses. This review examines the interaction between CF mutations and CFTR modulators, with particular focus on CF microbiology.
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Strategies, Technologies, and Challenges in the Management of COVID-19 Pandemic by Telehealth p. 35
Abdolreza Babamahmoodi, Zahra Arefnasab, Matin Marjani, Seyed Mohammad Poorhosseini, Mitra Rezaei, Majid Marjani
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_1_22  
Presenting professional health services after the COVID-19 pandemic age may be recognized with numerous critical features that did not exist in preceding pandemics. The widespread world web and cyberspace, social media, and technologies for providing remote intelligent health services are the most prominent differences between the recent pandemic and previous ones. Most health-care providers in the pandemic era focus more on the technologies needed to set up telehealth but do not pay enough attention to the strategies and challenges ahead. They are more focused on the lucrative health market in the days of the pandemic but do not have appropriate and dynamic strategies for it. This article addresses the strategies, technologies, and challenges facing telehealth and emphasizes the importance and priority of the necessary strategies, prioritizing technology.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

The effect of virtual reality technology on reducing pain and stress during arterial catheter placement p. 40
Lida Fadaizadeh, Mohammad Sanaat, Seyed Mohammad Jafar Taheri, Marjan Sistani
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_4_22  
BACKGROUND: Different pharmacological ways for pain and stress control exists, but still, there is space for alternative therapeutic methods and researchers are looking for novel ways to achieve this goal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of virtual reality (VR) in reducing pain and stress during minor interventions such as arterial line placement. METHODS: In this study, patients who were candidates for arterial catheter placement before anesthesia induction were selected. Eligible patients were randomly divided into case and control groups. After obtaining consent from both groups and applying local anesthesia, the procedure was performed while displaying a film by VR camera for case group. After the procedure, pain, stress, and satisfaction levels were asked from patients. Pain score was measured by Visual Analog Scale score and during the procedure, vital signs were recorded to detect changes. RESULTS: The results in case and control patients showed that 47.5% of patients in case group and 22.5% of patients in control group had pain (P value = 0.019). Considering stress, respectively, 32.5% and 45% of the patients in the control and case groups reported positive (P = 0.251). Intergroup comparison of vital signs showed no significant difference between the case and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, patients in case group experienced more pain and stress in comparison to the control group which shows that using the new technology was not quite acceptable. Therefore, we recommend the patients experience and be familiarized with the new device in normal condition before using it for procedures.
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Scorpion envenomations in Algeria p. 45
Schehrazad Selmane, Mohamed Lhadj
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_5_22  
CONTEXT: Due to its climatic and ecological characteristics, Algeria shelters a diverse scorpion fauna and scorpion envenomations represent an actual public health issue. AIMS: The purpose of this retrospective study was to bring word on the trend, spatial distribution, and spatial clustering of scorpion envenomations in Algeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Moran's I statistic was used to analyse the global spatial autocorrelation and the first order Queen's contiguity rule was used to specify the spatial neighborhood relationship. RESULTS: A total of 1,274,154 scorpion sting accidents including 2347 deaths have been recorded from 1991 to 2020. In 2019, the incidence was 116.7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and only 3 of Algeria's 48 provinces were free of scorpion sting accidents. 47% of sting cases occurred in the Sahara, 46% in the high plateaus and 7% in the Tell and all southern provinces had an incidence varying between 162 and 827 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence rates exhibited spatial autocorrelation globally; all Moran index values ranged between 0.49 and 0.66 and all z-scores were greater than the critical value at 0.05 level of significance. The most significant hot spots were located in the Sahara and the high plateaus and the most significant cold spots were located in the tell. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to reframe the set objectives and the actions to be carried out taking into account spatial clustering, seasonality, and species spatial distribution. A good management can be achieved by active public participation at all levels of planning, decision-making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
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In silico screening and characterization of novel natural peptides as spike protein inhibitors of novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) p. 54
Raghunath Satpathy, Namrata Dash
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_7_22  
BACKGROUND: The present work is a computational approach to discover the novel peptides that can interact and inhibit the action of spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 193 numbers probable naturally occurring antiviral peptides were retrieved from the antimicrobial database. The three-dimensional structure of all the peptides was predicted by the Chimera tool followed by energy minimization. Similarly, the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 chain A (PDB ID 6VBY) structure was obtained from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and used as the receptor. RESULTS: Protein–protein docking was performed for all the peptides followed by some screening criteria that resulted in three numbers of potential peptides such as CAP11 binds to a receptor-binding domain (RBD), mytilin B to S1/S2 cleavage regions, and mBD-1 as N-terminal-binding domain of spike protein. Further screening and evaluation of solubility and the toxic properties of the peptides it was obtained that the peptide molecules CAP11 and mytilin B are nontoxic. Further, the RBD-binding nature of CAP11 peptide was evaluated comparatively by taking the human ACE2 protein and RBD region of the wild-type SARS-CoV-2, triple mutant, South African mutant (B.1.351), by using molecular docking followed by interface analysis. It was predicted that the CAP11 peptide was able to bind perfectly with the RBD domain of both wild type and triple mutant one but not to the South African mutant.
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CASE REPORT Top

The diagnostic conundrum of lupus vulgaris versus cutaneous sarcoidosis p. 63
K Geetha, Puja, Niraj Kumari, Shruti Gupta
DOI:10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_12_22  
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis (TB). Lupus vulgaris is one of the most common forms of cutaneous TB, which affects 1%–2% of TB patients. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease with an unknown origin, and skin involvement is the second most common symptom. Both TB and sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases. Depending on investigations, it is often hard to distinguish sarcoidosis from TB, especially when serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels are high in certain cases of TB with negative acid-fast staining in the biopsy specimen. This is a report of two patients where there was trouble distinguishing between sarcoidosis and TB based on laboratory reports but was eventually diagnosed with cutaneous TB based on the Mantoux, QuantiFERON-TB Gold test, and histopathological pattern. Anti-TB therapy was administered to those patients, and the skin lesions resolved completely.
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