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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2022
Volume 1 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 153-197

Online since Sunday, September 18, 2022

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Immune system diversity against SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccines p. 153
Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock
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Bacterial flora of stored musical instruments: Relevance to infection prevention and control p. 156
John E Moore, Beverley Cherie Millar
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Biomedical activities of florasol p. 158
Paramasivam Selvakumar
Florasol is an acyclic alcohol of diterpene regularly available in certain aromatic plants' essential oils, such as Lantana radula and Cleome serrata. Florasol is a plant phytochemical phytoconstituent which is extensively spread in nature. Florasol is a branched-chain unsaturated alcohol which is present day in all plants in the form of chlorophyll. Cytotoxic, antibiotic chemotherapy, antidiabetic, anti-hyperalgesic, antimutagenic, anti-teratogenic, anticonvulsant, anti-schistosomal, lipid restriction, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-scratching behavioral effects, antifungal, anti-inflammatory antispasmodic, anxiolytic, hair growth facilitator, antidepressant, and immune adjuvant have been shown evidence to have florasol as well as its derivatives. Recent investigations with florasol (PYT) demonstrated anxiolytic, metabolism-modulating, cytotoxic, antioxidant, autophagy- and apoptosis-inducing, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating, and antimicrobial effects. The benefit of florasol in the human body is necessary. In reference to technological bases, patent present a wide range of pharmacological and commercial applications such as cosmetics, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant. Therefore, it is necessary to explore florasol molecules, which present high pharmacological potential from scientific and technological points of view, in search of transference of technologies to generate economical and industrial growth.
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Knowledge and awareness about preanesthetic evaluation for performing procedures under general anesthesia among dental students - A cross-sectional study p. 163
Pasala Kavitha, Kanamarlapudi Venkata Saikiran, Sainath Reddy Elicherla, Karthik Anchala, Punamalli Symon Prasanth, Sivakumar Nuvvula
BACKGROUND: Lack of knowledge on preanesthetic evaluation before any general anesthesia (GA) procedures will lead to uncertainty in the outcome of the surgery. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and awareness about preanesthetic evaluation for performing procedures under GA among dental graduates. METHODS: A 13-item questionnaire was prepared from the standardized method using focus group discussion. The questionnaires were sent to 1020 students (508 house surgeons, 512 postgraduates) through the registered E-mail address and WhatsApp as a Google form link. We received 246 responses at the end of 2 weeks, and finally, 509 responses were received at the end of 4 weeks. The data from the responses were collected, and descriptive analysis was done using a Microsoft Excel sheet (Version 2016). A Chi-square test was performed to compare the responses from house surgeons and postgraduates. RESULTS: A total of 523 responses out of 1020 were received within a period of 4 weeks. From this, 14 responses were excluded from the final analysis due to repeated responses and the final analysis was done using 509 responses (270 postgraduates [53%] and 239 house surgeons [47%]). More than half of the participants had insufficient knowledge regarding preanesthetic evaluation. CONCLUSION: The knowledge and awareness were good among the dental postgraduate students compared to house surgeons but implementing that in practice was relatively negligible. Therefore, understanding the importance of preanesthetic evaluation can help the students to reduce potential risk and improves the quality of life among the patients.
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Association between serum fibroblast growth factor 21 and presence of allostatic load among industrial workers p. 170
Kalahasthi Ravibabu, Raju Nagaraju, Rakesh Balachandar, Vinay Kumar Adepu
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) mediates metabolic changes and chronic stress. Allostatic load (AL) is an imbalance between repetitive exposure to stress and adaptive response. This study examined the association between FGF21 and the presence of AL among industrial workers. METHODS: The study is cross-sectional and observational. Parameters data were collected from 169 male industrial workers. AL was assessed using neuroendocrine (cortisol and Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), cardiovascular (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate), metabolic (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and anthropometric (waist-hip ratio and body mass index) measurements. Serum FGF21 was analyzed using the ELISA method. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that 43.2% and 56.8% of workers had low and high AL, respectively. Serum (natural logarithm) Ln-FGF21 was significantly elevated in workers with high AL when compared to moderate and low AL. The association between serum FGF21 and AL was analyzed using the linear regression model. The model indicated that age (β = 0.143, P = 0.038) and serum FGF21 (β = 0.162, P = 0.045) were significantly associated with AL. In high AL condition, the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve for Ln-FGF21: 0.656 (95% confidence interval: 0.570–0.742, P = 0.001) was found to be higher as compared to moderate and low AL. CONCLUSIONS: FGF21 was significantly increased in high AL conditions when compared to low and moderate AL among workers. Therefore, we recommended that FGF21 could be used as a potential biomarker to screen and protect strategy against high AL.
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Prevalence of ABO blood group system in southern Babylon, Iraq p. 178
Aalae Salman Ayit, Falah Hasan Obayes AL Khikani, Raheem Malallah Abadi
BACKGROUND: ABO blood grouping is now regarded as one of the most important immunological tests to do before numerous treatments, including clinical blood transfusion operations. The purpose of this study was to record the different blood types among the people of southern Babylon, Iraq, and compare the findings for males and females. METHODS: A total of 10,570 subjects, of which 6643 were females, and 3927 were males, were involved in this study from February 2, 2022, to June 1, 2022. The antigen-antibody agglutination test was used to determine blood type and Rh factor. For both males and females, the frequency of each kind was determined. RESULTS: The blood group O was the most common among the investigated population in all areas and among both sexes, followed by blood groups B and A, with the B group somewhat higher among females and the A slightly higher among men. The AB blood group was the least common of the four. Blood type B was prevalent in females (26.97%) compared to males (24.41%). Whereas blood type A was more prevalent in males (24.59%) compared to females (24.12%). CONCLUSIONS: Positive Rh+ (antigen D) was observed in 9492 (89.8%) of all participants, whereas Rh negative in 1078 (10.2%). Prevalence of blood O positive was more predominant in females than in males (40.77% and 28.69%, respectively). Group AB positive was more predominant in males than in females (14.8% and 7.48%, respectively).
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Libyan medical students' knowledge, attitude, and barrier toward clinical research p. 182
Ahmed Atia, Fatima Al-Abbasi, Maram Benneama, Aya Ammoush, Amani Al-Ghrabi
BACKGROUND: Undergraduate involvement in research necessitates better understanding of their potential, as well as the anticipated barriers they will face. The objective of this study was to assess medical undergraduates' knowledge, attitudes, and research barriers. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on medical students from the University of Tripoli, Libya, where a self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate the students' knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers. Filled questionnaires were received from the medical undergraduates of different faculties of medical specialties. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of completed questionnaires were received from 120 undergraduate medical students. The overall result of knowledge among them was encouragingly good (51%). Majority of the students taught that the main barriers in conducting research were lack of awareness (71.7%), lack of self-interest (56.7%), lack of faculty encouragement for research (84.2%), insufficient time (59.2%), and difficulty in obtaining resources and data for research (68.3%). CONCLUSION: Participants in the current study showed a moderate knowledge level with associated positive attitudes toward research. This attitude needs to be transformed into better knowledge and appropriate practice.
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Factor associated with treatment noncompletion during implementation of isoniazid-preventive therapy in ten pilot sites of Lome, Togo p. 187
Doevi Mawuena Biaou, Tete Amento Stephane Adambounou, Nadjide Alade Ogounde, Marius Mariano Tchedeke Efio, Komi Seraphin Adjoh
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) represents the leading cause of death among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Several studies have proven the effectiveness of isoniazid-preventive treatment (IPT) in reducing the incidence and mortality of TB. The study aims to identify the factors associated with noncompletion of the treatment during the pilot phase of IPT implementation. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using data routinely collected in ten PLHIV care centers in Lomé, Togo, conducted between June 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020. All confirmed PLHIV newly enrolled in care who gave consent were included. IPT tolerance and signs of TB were checked at each appointment. To identify the factors associated with noncompletion of treatment, a logistic regression model was developed. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of the 301 patients were female. The mean age was 39.8 ± 13.2 years. Respectively, 43.8% and 41.9% of the patients were at clinical stages 1 and 2. The mean completion rate was 42.9% with extremes depending on the center ranging from 9.5% to 90.0%. The main causes of noncompletion were isoniazid stockouts (45.9%), lost to follow-up (37.8%), and noncompliance (12.8%). Multivariate analysis identified stockouts, public type of center, and poor general condition at the inclusion as risk factors for noncompletion. CONCLUSIONS: Good results obtained by some centers prove that the implementation of the intervention is indeed possible, as long as good management of drug stocks and better follow-up of patients are ensured.
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DNA vaccine construct formation using Mycobacterium-specific gene Inh-A p. 192
Summayya Anwar, Javed Anver Qureshi, Mirza Imran Shahzad, Muhammad Mohsin Zaman, Aeman Jilani
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a highly contagious disease and a leading cause of death worldwide. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. TB infection is still uncontrolled because of the unavailability of an effective vaccine, co-infection with HIV, lengthy treatment, and the emergence of resistant forms of M. tb like multi/extreme drug resistance strains. TB is mainly a disease of underdeveloped countries because of inadequate health facilities. The development of the new state of modern art vaccine-like DNA vaccine is a promising approach to control TB. The DNA vaccine can be used alone or in combination with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). The objective of the current study is to develop an M. tb gene inh-A based DNA vaccine. METHODS: The immunodominant gene (Rv1484/INH-A) was amplified using sequence-specific primers. The amplified product was cloned into Topo 2.1 polymerase chain reaction vector, confirmed through restriction digestion and sequence analysis. Finally, subcloned into mammalian expression pVAX1 vector. RESULTS: The inh/A-pVAX1 construct was again confirmed through restriction digestion and sequence analysis. The rightly oriented constructs were selected, and these will be used for in Vivo DNA vaccine immunization studies. CONCLUSITONS: DNAvaccine can be used alone or in combination with BCG. DNA vaccines have enough potential to be used with TB treatment and reduce the treatment time in future.
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