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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 134-137

Pharmacological interrelationship analysis between Lentinula Edodes and COVID-19: A pathway analysis


Sant Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri Colony, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission29-Mar-2022
Date of Decision04-May-2022
Date of Acceptance28-May-2022
Date of Web Publication15-Jun-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip
Dr DY Patil University, Pune, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_20_22

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  Abstract 


BACKGROUND: Learning about the numerous ways traditional plants can be used to address medical concerns is fascinating. Many researches are being conducted to investigate the effects of traditional herbal mushrooms in the treatment of a variety of medical ailments, including respiratory disorders.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we used network pharmacology to identify a biological relationship between the pharmacological influence of shiitake or Lentinula edodes, a traditional Asian medicinal fungus, and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pathophysiology.
RESULTS: Using interrelationship analysis, the scientists revealed the common pathway through inducing mitochondrial membrane potential loss.
CONCLUSION: The use of L. edodes to treat COVID-19 could be useful. It is suggested that more research be done on the efficacy of shiitake mushrooms in the treatment of COVID-19. Based on the findings of this study, a method to combat COVID-19 using a locally available herbal regimen should be a current high priority research field. The primary in silico study's likely alternate option should be advanced to in vitro and in vivo research as a result.

Keywords: COVID-19, mushroom, shiitake


How to cite this article:
Mungmunpuntipantip R, Wiwanitkit V. Pharmacological interrelationship analysis between Lentinula Edodes and COVID-19: A pathway analysis. J Prev Diagn Treat Strategies Med 2022;1:134-7

How to cite this URL:
Mungmunpuntipantip R, Wiwanitkit V. Pharmacological interrelationship analysis between Lentinula Edodes and COVID-19: A pathway analysis. J Prev Diagn Treat Strategies Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 26];1:134-7. Available from: http://www.jpdtsm.com/text.asp?2022/1/2/134/347543




  Introduction Top


Learning about the numerous ways traditional rituals might be used to manage medical difficulties is fascinating. Many studies are being conducted right now to investigate the advantages of traditional herbs for a variety of medical ailments, including respiratory illnesses. The current condition of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) development is a major public health concern worldwide. Alternative therapy for COVID-19 is currently a popular issue in clinical research.[1],[2]

Alternative medicine is a hot issue right now, with a lot of study being done on it. There have been a number of unique alternative remedies presented. The use of herbal medicine will be the subject of conversation. Several well-known Asian medications, including medicinal mushrooms, are currently being investigated for their possible role in the treatment of COVID-19. In this study, we used network pharmacology to find a biological link between the pharmacological impact of shiitake (Lentinula edodes), a traditional Asian medicinal fungus,[3] and the pathophysiological process of COVID-19, which is currently a major global health concern. The authors were able to demonstrate a similar pathway by inducing mitochondrial membrane potential loss using interrelationship analysis. It is possible that using L. edodes to treat COVID-19 will be beneficial.


  Materials and Methods Top


This research is part of a bigger investigation of the efficacy of traditional herbal treatments for COVID-19. Clinical informatics is the topic of this study. The investigation of the biological process network has come to a conclusion. The influence of a traditional Asian herbal mushroom, shiitake, is investigated using the network pharmacology approach for its association with the pathophysiological process of COVID-19, a severe respiratory tract infection that is now circulating.[4] Biological processes involving L. edodes and COVID-19 were discovered through direct database mining using common international databases such as PubMed and SCOPUS. This study used the same in silico bioinformatics technique as the one used in the prior work.[5]

The information for this in silico medical informatics study came from a variety of databases all across the world. First, standard databases were searched for published data on the pharmacobiological effects of L. edodes and the pathophysiological effects of COVID-19. PubMed (www.pubmed.com) and Scopus (www.scopus.com) were used as international databases (www.scopus.com). To find publications for additional investigation, the key phrases “COVID-19” and “Lentinula edodes” were employed. Pathogenic and pharmacological pathways are investigated in all of the articles that result from it. The pathological/phamacological processes that emerged as a result of the article recruiting were collated and used to conduct a more in-depth analysis of interrelationships.

For interrelationship analysis, a common pathopharmacological pathway was first discovered. The strategy is based on bioinformatics analysis, which entails finding exact matches of pathological/pharmacology processes mentioned in the literature. The pharmacological and pathophysiological processes of L. edodes and COVID-19 were compared, and a common pathway was investigated using a traditional method.[5]

The pharmacological effects of L. edodes were compared to the pathological actions of COVID-19 in an attempt to find similar biological pathways. In their common cross processes, COVID-19 and L. edodes share a node. By linking it to other nodes, the identified common node is used to build the final interrelationship network. The network pathway diagram displaying the association between pathological/pharmacology processes and COVID-19 is derived after the final establishment of the common pathway with a common node connection. The conclusion is based on the final network pathway diagram produced by the in silico network research mentioned previously.

Since this is a pure in silico study and did not involve any human or animal or clinical sample, informed consent and ethical approval are not required.


  Results Top


The observations suggest that mitochondrial membrane potential is a common link between the pharmacological and pathological processes of L. edodes and COVID-19. Considering the pathway, the pathogenic virus of COVID-19 can interfere the normal mitochondrial membrane potential physiology result in uncontrolled overexpression, and the L. edodes can have pharmacological against the expression of the mitochondrial membrane potential. After an extensive interrelationship network study, [Figure 1] illustrates the completed interrelationship network.
Figure 1: Interrelationship network showing the association between pharmacological process of Lentinula edodes and pathophysiological process of COVID-19 with common interrelationship at mitochondria membrane potential

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  Discussion Top


Traditional herbal regimens can be evaluated using bioinformatics clinical pharmacology network analysis.[6],[7],[8] The method is based on informatics analysis, which entails path discovery, identification of common nodes, rearrangement, and the eventual formation of an interrelationship network. This is the standard clinical informatics analysis utilized in earlier studies.[5],[9],[10] The authors undertake a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of shiitake, a well-known traditional mushroom, in the treatment of COVID-19 in this short exploratory trial.

In therapeutic pharmacology, the shiitake mushroom is a well-known Asian plant. In theory, the mushrooms were used to improve immune function that had been harmed by cancer or chemotherapy.[11] The mushroom may be used to treat a variety of illnesses. It has been thoroughly examined and validated for its efficacy in the treatment of respiratory disorders. L. edodes may have antiviral properties in relation to the influenza virus, according to numerous reports.[12],[13] There is, however, a lack of knowledge on coronavirus infection. L. edodes is one of the few herbs that has been studied and proved to help cure COVID-19, a recently discovered disease.[13] L. edodes became a commonly utilized local medicine in a variety of contexts after it was repositioned for the treatment of COVID-19.[14] Many Asian countries have already indicated that L. edodes will be used to treat COVID-19 despite the lack of a complete clinical investigation.

According to the current informatics study, shiitake mushrooms disrupt mitochondria membrane potential, and COVID-19 has a pathogenic pathway linked to the host's mitochondria membrane potential. Shiitake, on the other hand, will not be a viable COVID-19 treatment choice unless it is backed up by scientific proof. To enable early in silico assessment, more in vitro and in vitro research is required. As a result, in this work, which is essentially an in silico analysis, a popular bioinformatics technique, more in vitro and in vivo testing is required. However, as previously stated, there are no data from a standard clinical trial to back up the herb's precise therapeutic efficacy for COVID-19 therapy.

Shiitake lowers mitochondria membrane modification,[15] and COVID-19 has a pathogenic mechanism connected to mitochondria membrane,[16] according to a recent informatics study. During COVID-19, the virus hijacks the mitochondria, producing membrane damage and the release of mt-DNA into the bloodstream, which can activate innate immunity and cause an inflammatory response.[16] Utilizing mitochondria as a therapeutic target for the recovery of cellular equilibrium could be a possible treatment to reduce long-term COVID-19 consequences.[16] According to a recent study, shiitake mushroom extracts may have a preventive or therapeutic effect in the prevention or treatment of pneumonic superinfection and severe lung inflammation, both of which are common COVID-19 infection consequences. Shiitake, on the other hand, will not be a viable COVID-19 treatment option unless scientific evidence backs it up. More in vitro and in vitro research is needed to support the early in silico examination. As a result, more in vitro and in vivo testing is required in this study, which is essentially an in silico analysis, a popular bioinformatics technique. However, as previously noted, there is no supporting evidence from a standard clinical trial to substantiate the herb's precise therapeutic efficiency for COVID-19 therapy.

According to the current informatics study, shiitake mushrooms can cause mitochondria membrane potential loss, and COVID-19 has a pathogenic pathway that involves mitochondria membrane potential. Shiitake, on the other hand, will not be a successful traditional herb for COVID-19 treatment until scientific data support it. To support the early in silico examination, more in vitro and in vitro research is required. As a result, more in vitro and in vivo testing is required to arrive at the final results in this study, which is essentially an in silico analysis, which is a popular bioinformatics technique. However, no supporting evidence from a normal clinical trial exists to confirm the herb's precise therapeutic effectiveness for COVID-19 therapy, as previously stated. The current article is a research project on a medicinal mushroom. Other herbal mushrooms and plants will be studied in the future.


  Conclusion Top


The pathogenic process of COVID-19 and the therapeutic process of L. edodes are linked through a node at mitochondria membrane potential. It shows that L. edodes has pharmacological properties that can help with COVID-19 management. L. edodes, as a result, could be a promising COVID-19 treatment. On the other hand, the study's conclusions are based on bioinformatics projections. Based on this study, a strategy to use the locally available herbal regimen against COVID-19 should be the current high priority research area. The possible alternative candidate from the primary in silico study should be further progressed to the in vitro and in vivo studies consequence.

Limitation

Due to the limits imposed by the nature of in silico analysis, further research is required to produce a reliable and acceptable result. As a result, more research is needed into the use of L. edodes for COVID-19 therapeutic management.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Singh PK, Rawat P. Evolving herbal formulations in management of COVID-19. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2017;8:207-10.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
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4.
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Yasri S, Wiwanitkit V. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, opisthorchiasis and dengue: A proteomics interrelationship. J Vector Borne Dis 2018;55:245.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
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Wiwanitkit V. Cancer immunomics and application of 'omics' for cancer management. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2007;3:807-12.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Shah SK, Walker PA, Moore-Olufemi SD, Sundaresan A, Kulkarni AD, Andrassy RJ. An evidence-based review of a Lentinula edodes mushroom extract as complementary therapy in the surgical oncology patient. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35:449-58.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Kuroki T, Lee S, Hirohama M, Taku T, Kumakura M, Haruyama T, et al. Inhibition of influenza virus infection by Lentinus edodes mycelia extract through its direct action and immunopotentiating activity. Front Microbiol 2018;9:1164.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Di Pierro F, Bertuccioli A, Cavecchia I. Possible therapeutic role of a highly standardized mixture of active compounds derived from cultured Lentinula edodes mycelia (AHCC) in patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2020;66:172-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Rahman MA, Rahman MS, Bashir NM, Mia R, Hossain A, Saha SK, et al. Rationalization of mushroom-based preventive and therapeutic approaches to COVID-19: Review. Int J Med Mushrooms 2021;23:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Din SR, Zhong M, Nisar MA, Saleem MZ, Hussain A, Khinsar KH, et al. Latcripin-7A, derivative of Lentinula edodes C91-3, reduces migration and induces apoptosis, autophagy, and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in breast cancer cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020;104:10165-79.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Valdés-Aguayo JJ, Garza-Veloz I, Vargas-Rodríguez JR, Martinez-Vazquez MC, Avila-Carrasco L, Bernal-Silva S, et al. Peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA levels were modulated by SARS-CoV-2 infection severity and its lessening was associated with mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021;11:754708.  Back to cited text no. 16
    


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