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Table of Contents
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 202-208

Pharmacognostical and phytopharmacological review on coatbuttons

Department of Chemistry, Dhaanish Ahmed Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission23-Jun-2022
Date of Decision21-Jul-2022
Date of Acceptance25-Aug-2022
Date of Web Publication5-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
P Selvakumar
Department of Chemistry, Dhaanish Ahmed Institute of Technology, Coimbatore - 641 105, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_55_22

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Tridax procumbens L., regularly known as coatbuttons or Tridax daisy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. T. procumbens are well identified for their medicinal properties among local natives. Besides being habitually used for dropsy, anemia, ulcer, piles, arthritis, gout, asthma, and urinary problems, it is also used in treating gastric complications, body pain, and rheumatic pains of joints. It is superlative and well-known as a prevalent weed and pest herbal. It is generally seen in the unused lands and along roadsides. It has been presented to tropical, subtropical, and mild temperate areas worldwide. T. procumbent, normally known as coatbuttons or Tridax daisy, is a species of blossoming plant in the daisy family. The preliminary phytochemical investigation showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, carotenoids, and tannins. It shows wound healing and is an anticoagulant, antifungal, and insect repellent activity. Ethnomedicinally this plant may be used in the treatment of numerous types of diseases. The plant shows various pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic, anticancer, antibacterial activity, antiarthritic activity, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory effects, antiulcer activity, and antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity.

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, anticancer activity, coatbutton, pharmacological activities, Tridax procumbens

How to cite this article:
Selvakumar P. Pharmacognostical and phytopharmacological review on coatbuttons. J Prev Diagn Treat Strategies Med 2022;1:202-8

How to cite this URL:
Selvakumar P. Pharmacognostical and phytopharmacological review on coatbuttons. J Prev Diagn Treat Strategies Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 29];1:202-8. Available from: http://www.jpdtsm.com/text.asp?2022/1/4/202/362823

  Introduction Top

Tridax procumbens species were introduced by Linnaeus as the publication of T. procumbens. Tridax plant originates throughout India and is used as a domestic medicine for a diversity of diseases. T. procumbens has been generally used in Indian classical medicine for wound healing, antifungal, anticoagulant, and insect repellent property, and also utilized in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhea.[1] T. procumbens is a weed that goes to the family Asteraceae that goes overlooked. It is one of the supreme potent species among the 30 species of the genus Tridax. It is one of the remedial herbs generally used by ethnomedical practitioners. It is best known as a pest plant and a widespread weed. T. procumbens is dispensed as “Bhringraj” which is a well-known Ayurvedic liver disorder medicine.[2] T. procumbens is also used by local healers for the treatment of boils, blisters, and cuts in different parts of India.[3] The phytochemical examination exposed the occurrence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and carotenoids.[4] Complete this review article aims to deliver an inform on past and current research on T. procumbens which to lay a foundation for upcoming direction growth and commercialization of this plant.

T. procumbens, normally known as coatbuttons is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family. It is best well-known as a widespread weed and pest plant. It is native to the Tropical Americas, but it has been presented to tropical, subtropical, and mild temperate regions worldwide. T. procumbens L. is a resident of equatorial America and adopted in equatorial India, Australia, Africa, and Asia. This wild herb spreads all over India. Coatbuttons are noticed on dunes, dykes, railroads, roadsides, riverbanks, meadows, and waste grounds. Its developing prevalence and significance as a weed are due to its plentiful seed production and spreading stems.[5] This plant can be originate in fields, meadows, croplands, disturbed areas, and roadsides in parts with semitropical climates.

  Scientific classification Top

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Subkingdom – Tracheobionta
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Subclass – Asteridae
  • Order – Asterales
  • Family – Asteraceae
  • Genus – Tridax
  • Species – T. procumbens.[6]

  Vernacular names Top

  • Tamil – Vettukaayapoondu
  • English – Tridax daisy
  • Kannada – Jayanthi
  • Hindi – Ghamra
  • Sanskrit – Jayantiveda
  • Telugu – Gaddichemanthi.[7]

  Morphology Top

Tridax procumbens L. is a hirsute, perennial rosemary with a very dense hairy structure in [Table 1]. The leaves are simple, ovate to lanceolate in shape, decussate with cuneate base, acute apex, serrated to indelicately dentate margins, and exstipulate opposite phyllotaxy. It grows up to 40 cm or more in height. A literature survey recommended that the numerous parts of the plant were conveyed to possess phytochemical composites such as alkaloids, carotenoids, fumaric acid, β-sitosterol, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. T. procumbens is a perpetual medicinal herb that has a creeping stem which can spread from 8 to 30 inches (20–75 cm) long.[5],[6],[7],[8],[9]
Table 1: Morphology characters of Tridax procumbens

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  Phytochemistry Top

The phytochemical examination showed the presence of flavonoids (catechins and flavones), alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and carotenoids. Jude et al. evaluated the phytochemical and mineral proximate profile of T. procumbens. The mineral proximate composition is depicted in [Table 2]. Quantitative profile of phytochemicals found in T. procumbens leaves composition (mg/kg) carotenoids 94.57, saponins 103.52, and tannins 4.72 mg/kg. Mineral element composition of T. procumbens leaves composition (mg/kg) dry weight calcium – 20.96, magnesium – 3.56, potassium – 31.92, sodium – 50.44, and selenium – 0.20 mg/kg.[4] Phytochemicals such as quercetagetin – 3, 6, 4'-trimethoxy- 7-O-neohesperidoside (flavonol diglycoside), 1,2-dihydrodendroarboreol B (a polyacetylene), and (3S,5R,6S,7E)-3-tetradecanoate-5,6-epoxy-β-ionone (ionone derivative) were report from the ethanolic extract of the plant.[10]
Table 2: Proximate composition of Tridax procumbens and stems and leaves

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The total chlorophyll substance and total carotenoid substance of T. procumbens were estimated as 1.424 mg/g ± 0.017 mg/g tissue and 0.724 mg/g ± 0.007 mg/g tissue, respectively.[11] The plant contains a high amount of alkaloids, hydroxycinnamates, flavonoids, tannins, and phytosterols.[12] Various compounds such as betulinic acid, esculetin, puerarin, oleanolic acid, and two new flavones named 6, 8, 3´-trihydroxy-3, 7, 4´-trimethoxyflavone and 8,3´-dihydroxy-3, 7, 4´-trimethoxy-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl flavone were isolated from the plant parts.[13] Oleanolic acid obtained from T. procumbens proved α-glucosidase inhibition property.[14] Terpenoids, such as β-amyrenone, oleanolic acids, taraxasterol acetate, and lupeol along with a new bisbithiophene named tri-bisbithiophene have been isolated from hexane extract of ethyl acetate soluble part of T. procumbens.[15] Two water-soluble polysaccharide fractions, WSTP-IA and WSTP-IB (only D-Galp as the major sugar component) have been purified from T. procumbens Linn. (TPEIF) leaves.[16],[17]

  Pharmacological Review Top

The pharmacological review of T. procumbens is summarized in [Table 3].
Table 3: The pharmacological activity of Tridax procumbens

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Antidiabetic activity

Hypoglycemic activity of dried alcoholic, petroleum ether, and aqueous (60°C–80°C) leaves extract of T. procumbens was evaluated in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model.[2] Alcoholic and aqueous extracts proved a considerable decrease in blood glucose level at a dose of 200 mg/kg and petroleum extract shows a very weak hypoglycemic activity.

Anticancer activity

Extraction of essential oils from T. procumbens fresh leaves and flowers has been performed by hydrodistillation and used for the evaluation of anticancer activity using MTT - 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) MCF7 -Epithelial cells isolated from the breast tissue of a 69-year-old, White, female patient. The essential oil exhibits concentration-dependent activity on the MCF-7 cell line. The IC50 value was found to be 96.6 μg/ml. The essential oil of T. procumbens proved to have an important anticancer activity that might be due to the presence of vital terpenes such as α-pinene and β-pinene.[17]

Antibacterial activity

Ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves of T. procumbens had been experienced for its antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion technique against different bacteria, clinical isolates, and some standard strains. The aqueous extract does not exhibit any antibacterial activity but the alcoholic extract showed significant antibacterial activity at a concentration of 5 mg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In comparison with various antibiotics such as augmentin, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin, the ethanolic extract exhibits marked activity against the nosocomial strains of Pseudomonas.[18]

Antiparkinson's activity

Ethanolic extracts of T. procumbens (EETP) leaves were used to estimate antiparkinson's activity in rotenone (ROT)-induced locomotor impairment and haloperidol-induced catalepsy in the fruit fly and the rat model, respectively. ROT has been coexposed with EETP on flies in the fruit fly model for 7 days. Compared with ROT-treated flies, EETP treatment has significantly improved the effectiveness of locomotor activity in flies. In the catalepsy model, the rats were treated for 15 days with EETP followed by haloperidol. A significant decrease in catalepsy, muscle rigidity, and improved locomotor performance had been observed with EETP.[22]

Antiarthritic activity

The ethanolic extract of T. procumbens whole plant showed important antiarthritic activity against Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritis in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. It is established by observing a reduction in the paw volume. A considerable decrease in body weight had been observed in control animals with arthritis as compared to control animals without arthritis. Animal treatment with T. procumbens helped to regain body weight in a dose-dependent manner.[23]

Antiulcer activity

T. procumbens ethanolic leaf at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed dose-dependent inhibition of ulcer lesion index and changes in gastric pH and volume in rats with ethanol-induced ulcers. The extract is also mixed up in restoring the large fibroblast cells and reduces glutathione (GSH), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the rat stomach. Hence, these results prove the remedial potential of T. procumbens.[24]

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity

Ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was evaluated against hepatic damage induced by paracetamol (acetaminophen) in male albino rats. Lowered catalase and SOD performance in liver tissue, a significant increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and enhanced lipid peroxidation has demonstrated hepatic damage caused by paracetamol (2 gm/kg). Elevation in serum bilirubin and an important reduction in total serum protein, hepatic GSH, and glycogen substance were observed due to paracetamol-induced hepatic damage. These altered parameters were reversed to normal levels, after administration of varying doses (100–400 mg/kg) of T. procumbens ethanolic extract orally for 7 days. This indicates the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of T. procumbens against liver damage induced by paracetamol.[25]

Hypotensive effect

The T. procumbens aqueous leaf extract was investigated for its cardiovascular effect on an anesthetized SD rat. Administration of aqueous extract by intravenous route shows an important dose-related reduction in blood pressure (mean arterial pressure). An important reduction in heart rate was found at the higher dose, whereas the lower dose does not show any effect on heart rate. Hypotensive effects and bradycardia did not show any produce on heart rate. Therefore, these results continue to validate the hypotensive effect of T. procumbens leaves and its achievement which is probably due to the stimulation of the cholinergic muscarinic receptors mechanism.[27]

Anti-inflammatory activity

Ethanol extract of T. procumbens leaves was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced mice model. Parameters such as histopathology and inflammatory edema were experiential and compare with that of a control group. In the treated groups, recovered histology and an important decrease in mice paw inflammation were noticed at 24 h. At the inflammatory site, cyclooxygenase and tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression levels were investigated to examine molecular activity through reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and PCR analysis. Therefore, T. procumbens shows anti-inflammatory activity at the molecular level.[28]

Immunomodulatory effects

The insoluble ethanolic fraction of TPEIF aqueous extract was used to study the immunomodulatory activity in Swiss male albino mice. After intraperitoneal administration of TPEIF, a significant increase in the splenic antibody-secreting cells, leukocyte count, and phagocytic index was observed. In addition, activation of the humoral immune response with an enhancement of the hemagglutination antibody titer was noticed. Prominent information for cellular immune system activation was reported with an enhanced type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity reaction.[29]

Anti-obesity activity

T. procumbens methanolic extracts were administered to atherogenic diet-induced obesity rats. Parameters such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total protein, and free fatty acids were assessed. Elevation of HDL cholesterol and a significant decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol, total protein, and free fatty acids were observed in extract-treated rats. Hence, T. procumbens proved significant anti-obesity activity.[30]

Antimalarial activity

In this study, essential oil had been extracted from the leaves of T. procumbens L. by steam distillation method. Antimalarial activity of essential oil was evaluated in mosquito cages against the Anopheles stephensi, the malarial vector. T. procumbens had been at three different concentrations of the oils (2%, 4%, and 6%). Comparatively, a significant repellent effect was observed at 6% concentration (>300 min).[31]

Wound healing activity

In the excision wound model, total protein, epithelization period, wound index, percentage contraction area, DNA estimation, hydroxyproline content, and histopathological evaluations have been made. Whereas in the incision wound model, tensile strength was evaluated. A marked result with wound index, epithelization period, and wound contraction has been exposed by 5% and 2.5% w/w EETP-treated animals. In both diabetic and nondiabetic crowds, a potent wound healing action was conveyed in 5% w/w artless ointment base of T. procumbens ethanolic extract. Compared to the diabetic group, an extremely noticeable and outstanding wound healing action by 5% w/w T. procumbent ointment was found in the nondiabetic group.[33]

Analgesic activity

Lyophilized decoctions of T. procumbens leaves were used to observe analgesic activity in rats using an acetic acid-induced writhing test, formalin-induced persistent pain, and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced hyper analgesia. An important and dose-dependent decrease in the abdominal writhing was experimental in the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test. Extract administration significantly inhibits the late phase of reasonable pain in the formalin test. A significant reduction in mechanical hyper analgesia was found in CFA-injected rats treated with extract orally. Hence, the results revealed the analgesic property of T. procumbens which might be due to both centrally and peripherally mediated mechanisms.[34]

Antidiarrheal activity

Antidiarrheal activity of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens had been carried out on prostaglandin-E2-induced enteropooling, gastrointestinal motility and castor oil-induced diarrhea in investigational animals. The lower dose of petroleum ether extract shows better antidiarrheal activity relative to the higher dose by dropping the amount of intestinal fluid in the prostaglandin-E2-induced diarrheal model. The dose-dependent antidiarrheal activity was observed by all extracts of T. procumbens by dropping the propulsion of charcoal meal in the gastrointestinal motility test model and reducing the frequency of defecation and the total weight of wet diarrhea in the castor oil-induced diarrhea model compared to the control group.[32]

Antifungal Activity

In an investigation study, the disc diffusion technique was executed against two fungal strains, namely, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger to decide the antifungal activity of the plant decoctions. Total activity was experimental by minimum inhibitory concentrations and by minimum fungicidal concentrations. The flavonoids decoction showed the highest activity in contradiction to A. niger, but alkaloid decoction showed no activity against both the test fungi.[35]

Antilithiatic activity

Ethanol extract from the plant was also used for giving kidney stone disorders. It showed activity against 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol and 2% w/v ammonium chloride-induced calcium oxalate urolithiasis, and hyperoxaluria-induced oxidative stress in animal models. Behavior with the decoctions of the plant was able to reduce calculogenesis-induced urinary excretion and renal admission of calcium oxalate and resultant lipid peroxidation, indicating antiurolithiasis and antioxidant effects.[36]

Repellency activity

In an investigation study, essential oils were extracted by steam distillation process from leaves and examined for its local repellency activities against malaria parasite A. stephensi in mosquito cages. All essential oils were experienced at three various concentrations. The essential oils of the plant showed a noticeable repellency effect.[31]

  Toxicity Studies Top

From various investigation studies, the decoctions of T. procumbens were reported to have dissimilar pharmacological effects. The acute toxicity reading was done using the method of Lorkes.[37] The administration to the test animal was oral, and the LD50 may be much higher since the decoctions will undergo metabolism to produce a new invention which could be less toxic. After acute administration, signs of toxicity are experimental including salivation, nose, and mouth on the floor of the cage, and restlessness. The LD50 of the decoctions was 2100 mg/kg body weight, and all the survived animals gained body weight and organ ratio as compared to the untreated control.[38]

  Conclusion Top

T. procumbens, commonly known as coatbuttons or Tridax daisy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. TPEIF has massive potential for phytochemical, nutritional, and pharmacological properties. From the above evaluation study and explanation, it is experimental that the herbal has been extensively used in the ancient system of medication for numerous biological disorders and it possesses numerous prominent phytopharmacological activities, as it is momentarily discussed in the review article. There is vast scope for research in the direction of more pharmacological activities of this plant and to elucidate the mechanism of action of the same in future. This medicinal plant can be a vital source of herbal drugs for the pharmaceutical industry in future as well. This indicates the medicinal significance of the plant. Several studies have been conducted on different parts of the plant such as leaves, stems, flowers, and roots. Thus, advanced research studies are necessary to confirm the therapeutic importance of T. procumbens at the molecular level. The juice extracted from the leaves is straightforwardly applied to injuries. Its leaf extracts are used for infectious skin diseases in traditional medications. It shows wound therapeutic and anticoagulant, antifungal, and insect repellent activity.

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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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