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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 178-181

Prevalence of ABO blood group system in southern Babylon, Iraq


1 Department of Microbiology, Al-Shomali General Hospital, Babylon, Iraq
2 Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, ; Department of Medical Technique, College of Medical Technique, The Islamic University, Babylon, Iraq
3 The Manager of Al-Shomali General Hospital, Babylon, Iraq

Date of Submission24-May-2022
Date of Decision06-Jun-2022
Date of Acceptance25-Jul-2022
Date of Web Publication18-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Falah Hasan Obayes AL Khikani
Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Babylon University, Babylon
Iraq
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpdtsm.jpdtsm_44_22

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  Abstract 


BACKGROUND: ABO blood grouping is now regarded as one of the most important immunological tests to do before numerous treatments, including clinical blood transfusion operations. The purpose of this study was to record the different blood types among the people of southern Babylon, Iraq, and compare the findings for males and females.
METHODS: A total of 10,570 subjects, of which 6643 were females, and 3927 were males, were involved in this study from February 2, 2022, to June 1, 2022. The antigen-antibody agglutination test was used to determine blood type and Rh factor. For both males and females, the frequency of each kind was determined.
RESULTS: The blood group O was the most common among the investigated population in all areas and among both sexes, followed by blood groups B and A, with the B group somewhat higher among females and the A slightly higher among men. The AB blood group was the least common of the four. Blood type B was prevalent in females (26.97%) compared to males (24.41%). Whereas blood type A was more prevalent in males (24.59%) compared to females (24.12%).
CONCLUSIONS: Positive Rh+ (antigen D) was observed in 9492 (89.8%) of all participants, whereas Rh negative in 1078 (10.2%). Prevalence of blood O positive was more predominant in females than in males (40.77% and 28.69%, respectively). Group AB positive was more predominant in males than in females (14.8% and 7.48%, respectively).

Keywords: ABO types, Babylon, blood group, Iraq, prevalence


How to cite this article:
Ayit AS, Obayes AL Khikani FH, Abadi RM. Prevalence of ABO blood group system in southern Babylon, Iraq. J Prev Diagn Treat Strategies Med 2022;1:178-81

How to cite this URL:
Ayit AS, Obayes AL Khikani FH, Abadi RM. Prevalence of ABO blood group system in southern Babylon, Iraq. J Prev Diagn Treat Strategies Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Oct 1];1:178-81. Available from: http://www.jpdtsm.com/text.asp?2022/1/3/178/356291




  Introduction Top


The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane is made up of glycoproteins and glycolipids and contains a variety of antigens.[1] Blood group prevalence studies are important for a variety of reasons, including sickness, blood transfusion, and organ transplantation, as well as their evolution, anthropology, and training ancestral link to humans, making them helpful in population genetic research. In addition, the discovery of the ABO and Rh blood types has greatly aided blood banking and transfusion therapy in reducing morbidity and mortality.[2]

The ABO types are under controlled by three alleles in a single gene found on the long arm of chromosome number 9: I, IA, and IB. IA and IB alleles are dominant over i, expressing a special dominance association (codominance). Variation in this allele frequency of the ABO gene presents the social tendency of populations to marry and reproduce within their regional, national, or ethnic group.[3]

Karl Landsteiner discovered the A, B, and C (later called O) blood groups for the first time in 1900–1901. In 1902, De Castello and Sturli discovered the fourth blood group, the AB blood group. Von Dungern and L. Hirszfeld confirmed in 1910 that the inheritance of A and B characteristics follows Mendelian hereditary rules, with the presence of A or B antigens predominating over their absence. Bernstein proposed in 1924 that the ABO antigens are inherited through three alleles of genes: A, B, and O resulting in six genotypes (AA, BB, AO, BO, AB, and OO) and four phenotypes (A, B, AB, and O).[4]

There are 34 recognized human blood type systems and hundreds of distinct blood group antigens and alleles, as previously mentioned.[5] Antigen expression differences across blood groups can enhance or reduce host vulnerability to a variety of illnesses. ABO antibodies are part of the innate immune system's defense against some bacterial pathogens and enveloped viruses, and they may play a role in disease etiology and personal vulnerability.[6] Only a few agents infect RBCs their precursors, such as malarial parasites and parvovirus B19. Most additional agents utilize RBCs as Lewis antigen transporters to the target tissue.[7]

There was an apparent link between illness transmission and ABO type in a Hong Kong outbreak. The majority of the affected persons (23/34) were nongroup O individuals, according to an epidemiology study of 34/45 hospital workers who got severe acute respiratory syndrome following exposure to a single-index patient (groups A, B, and AB). Individuals in Group O were relatively immune to infection, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.187 coronavirus, like HIV, is an enclosed virus that uses a viral adhesion glycoprotein to target host cells. Fourteen percent of the 389 HIV donors (0.01%) identified during screening were in group B, which was slightly higher than the overall population (9%; OR, 1.5).[6]

The current research sought to determine the frequency distribution of blood types, which is essential since it is employed in modern medicine, genetic research, anthropology, and tracing human ancestors.


  Methods Top


On January 5, 2022, the study protocol was accepted by the Ethical Committee of the Babylon Health Directorate. Furthermore, the patients' verbal consent was obtained before taking the sample. During the sampling, precautions were taken to ensure the safety of the participants. This work was also carried out by the Iraqi Ministry of Health Ethics Committee and followed all national rules. The number and date of project approval were 74584 on January 5, 2022.

The subjects belonged to both rural and urban areas of southern Babylon, Iraq. The study population included a total of 10,570 subjects, of which 6643 were females, and 3927 were males. The majority of the study populations were attendants of the health center laboratory for health screening and counseling before marriage in Al-Shomali general hospital from February 2, 2022, to June 1, 2022.

Three blood drops were obtained from each individual by pricking the tip of the index finger using a sterile lancet. Each drop of blood was put on a slide that contained an anti-blood typing serum. Monoclonal antibodies were utilized in this study: SPINREACT Anti-A, Anti-B, and Anti-A + B monoclonal antibodies from Citra Santa Coloma (Spain) for ABO blood type and SPINREACT Anti-D from Citra Santa Coloma (Spain) for Rh Group.

By gently probing into the mixture with a lancet, the agglutination of the blood drop with the three test sera was measured. Blood drops that clotted in response to the test sera were declared positive for that blood grouping reagent. Each reaction was recorded and then pooled and analyzed statistically.


  Results Top


Of a total of 10,570 participants in this study, of which females were 6643 (62.85%), whereas males were 3927 (37.15%). The distribution of the ABO blood group system showed that blood group O were 4102 (38.80%), blood group B were 2751 (26.02%), blood group A were 2569 (24.30%), and blood group AB were 1148 (10.86%). Blood group O was the most predominant type, followed by types B, A, and AB [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Distribution of blood group types in the population

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From 10,570 blood groups types, positive Rh+ (antigen D) was observed in 9492 (89.8%) of all participants, whereas Rh negative in 1078 (10.2%). Males appeared less than females concerning Rh antigen which was present in 3451 males (87.88%) and absent in 476 males (12.12%). While in females, it was present in 6041 (91%) and absent in 602 (9%) [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Rh blood system distribution according to gender

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Distribution of blood groups showed variation or differences comparing males and females. Prevalence of blood O positive was more in females than males (40.77% and 28.69%, respectively). While the predominance of blood type O negative was more in males than females (6.77% and 3.9%, respectively). Group AB positive was more predominant in males than females (14.8% and 7.48%, respectively).

Blood type B was prevalent in females (26.97%) compared to type B in males (24.41%). Whereas blood type A was more prevalent in males (24.59%) compared to females (24.12%) [Figure 3].
Figure 3: ABO blood system distribution according to gender

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  Discussion Top


Human blood group systems research has both evolutionary and physiological implications and can help scientists better understand historical human population movements and how various human populations are biologically connected. Blood group frequency distribution is essential since it is employed in modern medicine, genetic studies, anthropology, and tracing human ancestors.[8]

The O blood group had the highest frequency in the southern province of Babylon, followed by B and A blood groups approximately evenly, whereas the AB blood group had the lowest prevalence. Both genders had the same distribution, with the exception that males had a little higher A than B frequency, whereas females had a slightly higher B than A frequency, and the AB group was smaller than males. These findings were in agreement with several local, Arab, adjacent, and worldwide research to some extent, but differed from others.

According to a study conducted by Fatihallah[9] on the Basrah population, blood group O was the most common among both genders (39.6% and 37.4%, respectively), followed by A (31.8% and 30%, respectively), B (25.1 and 26.2%, respectively), and AB (the least common) (7.1% and 6.45%, respectively).

Bashwari et al.[10] found that the distribution of ABO blood types among the Saudi Arabian population was the same in order but with a change in frequency: O (51%), A (26.5%), B (18%), and AB (18%) (4.5%). However, it revealed a higher blood group O frequency and a lower blood group AB, whereas Boskabady et al.[11] found nearly identical results in the population of Mashhad City in Iran, with O (44.7%) nearly equating to B and A (23.3% and 23.1%, respectively), and the last being the AB (8.9%).

Malekasgar's[12] study of Indians revealed that the distribution of ABO groups among males differed from that of females, with blood group A being the most common (36%) among males, followed by the O (30.7%), the B (22.7%), and the AB (10.7%), whereas blood group B was the most common (39.2%) among females, followed by the O (30.4%), the A (26.6%), and finally the AB (8.9%).

Another study in northern Iraq mentioned that the most prevalent blood group was O (37.16%), followed by blood Groups A (32.47%) and B (23.84%), whereas the least prevalent blood group was AB (6.53%). The majority 91.73% were Rh positive, and 8.27% were Rh negative.[13] While the four regions of Al-Najaf show a high incidence of the O blood group and a much lower incidence of the group AB record (39.7%–9.4%), respectively, other blood groups A, B (26.5%–24.4%), respectively. In Rh system records, (92.6%) for Rh positive and (7.4%) for Rh negative.[13]

ABO blood group system is very important to be studied in various populations, ABO types may have been linked to certain diseases that may act as risk factors in certain groups in the populations.[14],[15],[16],[17]


  Conclusions Top


The creation of a basic blood group database not only gives information on the availability of human blood in the event of regional disasters but also serves as a forewarned of future disease burdens. Such research must be conducted at the regional level, wherever humankind exists. In the next years, more markers will be selected, and typing using DNA markers will offer a greater understanding of the genetic landscape of the Iraqi population. The genetic and environmental variables that influence the frequency of blood types in the Iraqi population must be investigated further. This may prompt another study to compare racial and ethnic characteristics ( Kurds vs. Arabs vs. Turks) to see whether there is a difference in ABO blood group frequency.

The distribution of the ABO blood group system in southern Babylon showed that blood group O were 38.80%, blood group B were 26.02%, blood group A were 24.30%, and blood group AB were 10.86%.

Blood type B was prevalent in females (26.97%) compared to type B in males (24.41%). Whereas blood type A was more prevalent in males (24.59%) compared to females (24.12%). Positive Rh+ (antigen D) was observed in 9492 (89.8%) of all participants, whereas Rh negative in 1078 (10.2%). Prevalence of blood O positive was more in females than males (40.77% and 28.69%, respectively). Group AB positive was more predominant in males than females (14.8% and 7.48%, respectively).

Limitation of the study

The main limitation in this study is the absence of genotyping study of the blood group systems for participants, the current study took into consideration only phenotypic properties. Small numbers of specimens may not reflect all populations in southern Babylon.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Rios M, Bianco C. The role of blood group antigens in infectious diseases. Semin Hematol 2000;37:177-85.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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de Mattos LC. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates. Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter 2016;38:331-40.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Fatihallah NS. Rh-immunization in Basrah. MJBU 1987;6:27-30.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Bashwari LA, Al-Mulhim AA, Ahmad MS, Ahmed MA. Frequency of ABO blood groups in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2001;22:1008-12.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Boskabady MH, Shademan A, Ghamami G, Mazloom R. Distribution of blood groups among population in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran). Pak J Med Sci 2005;21:194-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Malekasgar AM. ABO blood group prevalence in spontaneously repeated abortion. Turk J Haematol 2004;21:181-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Jaff MS. ABO and rhesus blood group distribution in Kurds. J Blood Med 2010;1:143-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Al-Khikani FH. Dermatophytosis a worldwide contiguous fungal infection: Growing challenge and few solutions. Biomed Biotechnol Res J (BBRJ) 2020;4:117.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Al-Khikani FH, Abadi RM, Ayit AS. Emerging carbapenemase Klebsiella oxytoca with multidrug resistance implicated in urinary tract infection. Biomed Biotechnol Res J (BBRJ) 2020;4:148.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Al-Khikani FH. Surveillance 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) spreading: Is a terrifying pandemic outbreak is soon. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2020;4:81-2.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Al-Khikani FH, Ayit AS. Correlation study between urinary tract bacterial infection and some acute inflammatory responses. Biomed Biotechnol Res J (BBRJ) 2019;3:236.  Back to cited text no. 17
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]



 

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